Developers Technical Information
ECO PRO Film Developer
eco•pro Film Developer is a powder b&w film developer for very high image quality, fine grain and sharpness equivalent in quality and results to Kodak Xtol. Development data for Xtol can be used for all films.
Preparing eco•pro Film Developer
Mix Part A in approximately 4 liters of hot water (recommended 64-84°F). You must completely dissolve Part A in the water before adding Part B. Then stir in Part B and bring the final volume up to 5 liters with cold water.
Once mixed, eco•pro Film Developer has a shelf life of approximately 6 months in a tightly-sealed full container, or approximately 2 months in a tightly-sealed half-full container. The dry powder will keep for several years if stored in a cool, dry environment.
ECO PRO Paper Developer
eco•pro Paper Developer is a fast-processing, clean working and low toxicity liquid concentrate print developers for b&w print processing suitable for use with all conventional b&w papers in tray, vertical slot processor, drum and other methods of processing. The developer is designed to be used at a 1+9 dilution under normal room temperature conditions (approximately 20°C/68°F), but may be further diluted to 1+14 when a longer processing time is preferred.
eco•pro Paper Developer is ideal for most applications where the paper's natural image tone is desired. Coldtone paper will be developed to a slightly cooler side of neutral black, while warmtone paper will be on the warmer side of a neutral black hue.
eco•pro Paper Developer is especially recommended when the developed prints are intended for toning, as it is optimized to produce the maximum effect of the toner. The combination of eco•pro Paper Developer and toners based on sulfur or selenium offers a range of warm black hues, and when properly processed, toned images are permanent.
eco•pro Paper Developer is a modern print developer, but it may be used in a very similar manner to traditional print developers, such as Kodak Dektol and Ilford Multigrade developer. Users still benefit from the lower toxicity and excellent image quality provided by eco•pro Paper Developer.
Preparing eco•pro Paper Developer
Simply dilute with water before use. One part of eco•pro Paper Developer is mixed with nine parts of water (1+9 dilution). For slower processing, one part of eco•pro Paper Developer is mixed with fourteen parts of water (1+14 dilution).
When the developer is prepared at the 1+9 dilution, the working solution may be stored in a tightly closed bottle between uses, until the processing capacity is reached. However, if prepared at the 1+14 dilution, the developer should be discarded after use.
Both resin coated (RC) and baryta (FB) paper can be processed using a tray method. A developer tray should be filled with a sufficient amount of eco•pro Paper Developer working solution, prepared as above. Processing temperature may be between 18°C to 27°C, but 20°C to 24°C is recommended. The standard processing time is 60 to 120 seconds, although the processing time may need to be slightly extended if working at a lower temperature.
To process, completely immerse a sheet of exposed paper in the developer working solution. Gently rock the tray from side to side to agitate the solution, but without spilling the developer. The tray should be rocked continuously until the image appears and darkens, taking about 45 to 60 seconds. Thereafter, the agitation may be intermittent, until the development is completed. Recommended development time is 60 to 120 seconds. Note that some papers develop faster than others. Longer development time may be given without changing image contrast, as long as the clarity of highlight is maintained. Typically, RC paper should be developed for 1 minute and FB paper for a 2 minutes or longer.
Vertical slot processing
Developer solution should be prepared at 1+9 dilution with the processing times as above at 20C. For details, follow the manufacturer's instruction.
Developer solution may be used repeatedly for 60-100 8x10 prints per liter of working developer at 1+9 dilution, or 30-80 at 1+14 dilution. In reality, the fluid loss due to carryover of the developer solution may be the limiting factor. It is recommended to top up the processing tray with the developer of the same dilution from time to time, to make up for the fluid loss. By using this technique with the 1+9 dilution, the processing capacity of the developer is expanded from the numbers above.
When the developer in an open tray is used slowly, it should maintain its full processing performance for at least 12 hours when using the 1+9 dilution at 20°C. However, higher solution temperature or greater dilution may make the solution deteriorate more quickly. Partially used developer solution may be stored in a tightly stoppered glass or polyethylene bottle, filled to the top, for several weeks.
Processing After Development
Developed prints are immersed in a stop bath, such as dilute acetic acid, for 10 to 30 seconds. If preferred, a developed print may be rinsed by completely immersing in a tray of fresh tap water and agitating continuously for 30 seconds. Prints are then fixed in a fixer solution, and washed in water before drying.
For best results, eco•pro Neutral Fixer is recommended. When processing baryta (FB) paper, it is highly recommended to use a washing aid to shorten the final wash time and save water. eco•pro Hypo Wash is recommended; however, most standard fixers and washing aids from other manufacturers may be used. Refer to the fixer and washing aid product information sheet for details.
When warmer blacks are desired, eco•pro Paper Developer may be diluted 1+19 and 2.0g or more of potassium bromide added to each liter of diluted developer. Print should be exposed slightly longer, and the print should be developed until the desired darkness is obtained. This technique works best with warmtone paper stock. However, when the print is to be toned, it is recommended that the 1+9 or 1+14 dilution be used for best results.
Unopened eco•pro Paper Developer should be kept in cool, dark conditions. The product has a shelf life of approximately 2 years. Once opened, the concentrate should be used within six months. For best results, large bottles of concentrate should be divided to several small glass or polyethylene bottles filled to the top (developer deteriorates when it is in contact with air, exposed to heat or strong light).
eco•pro Paper Developer is available in bottles of 1 US quart (0.95 liters) and 1 US gallon (3.9 liters), and in 5 gallon superior grade cubitainers.
eco•pro chemicals are formulated without toxic or harmful chemicals, to minimize the risk in case of accidental exposure or release in the environment. The formula is made with the safest alternative compounds, whenever possible, without compromising the image quality and reliable functionality; however, it is recommended to use all darkroom safety precautions including: wearing an apron, gloves and eye protection. Refer to material safety data sheets for more specific safety information.
|Product Safety Chart|
|Print Developer||Hydroquinone||Metol||EDTA, DTPA|
|Agfa Neutol Plus||x|
|Agfa Neutol NE||x||x|
|Agfa Neutol WA||x||x|
|ECO•PRO Paper Developer||NONE||NONE||NONE|
|Ilford Multigrade Developer||x||x|
|Ilford PQ Universal||x||x|
|Kodak Polymax T||x||x|
x indicates that ingredient is used in the product according to the manufacturer's MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). Empty cell indicates that the ingredient is not listed in the manufacturer's MSDS; however, the disclosure may not be complete. The ingredients of ecopro products are confirmed with actual production formulae and are indicated as NONE.
eco•pro Paper Developer is free of:
- dihydroxybenzene compounds (commonly used in most photographic developers)
- known carcinogens
- known mutagens
eco•pro developers use a safe developing agent related to Vitamin C, rather than harmful and commonly used dihydroxybenzene compounds (e.g., hydroquinone), and are designed to minimize harmful effects when accidentally released into the environment. When diluted at 1+9, the nominal pH of eco•pro Paper Developer is 10.4, and the solution contains isoascorbic acid, sodium sulfite, potassium carbonate, and much smaller quantities of Dimezone S, potassium bromide, and other nontoxic proprietary compounds.
It is strongly recommended that the end user of any chemical solution check with federal, state, and local regulatory bodies to conform with special disposal methods for used solutions to remain in accordance with the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
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