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How to use the chart

Please Note: Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the data contained in the Massive Dev Chart, it is always advisable to run some tests of your own before developing important work. Please use these times as starting points only. Data like this should always be treated as a guideline because of the tremendous number of variables involved. One combination might work well in flat lighting, but be unsuitable for high-contrast scenes. Most of these times are for condenser enlargers, so if you are using a diffused light source it is advisable to develop for additional time.

Times: All times listed are in minutes using decimal format. For example: 8.25 = 8 mins, 15 secs.

Agitation: Wherever possible times have been listed which rely on the standard technique of 30-60 seconds continuous agitation after immersion, followed by 5-10 seconds (three inversions) per minute thereafter.

Rotary Processors: Times marked for rotary processors can be increased by 15% to provide a starting point for hand held tanks. Equally, you can reduce all times not listed as requiring continuous agitation by 15% to provide starting points for use with Jobo or other rotary processors.

Sheet Film: Times listed for sheet film are intended to refer to tray development. As not all manufacturers list specific development procedures, some times require adjustment. If the time listed is the same as that for 35mm or roll film you may want to reduce this by approximately 15% when using continuous agitation or a rotary processor.

Sources: Although many of the times listed on the chart are supplied by the manufacturers, quite a few of them are independent submissions, or data which I have collected from my own work or other sources. As a general rule, I have listed the time published by the film manufacturer, and where this data is unavailable I have used the time published by the developer manufacturer. Where there is significant information suggesting that a published time is inaccurate, we have replaced this time with third-party data (see FAQ below for more info).

Paterson Developers: To improve the grain and tonal range of film processed in Paterson developers have a look at the Revised Paterson Chart submitted by Michael Scarpitti.

Conflicts: Some published times differ substantially from user-submitted data. In most cases only the more accurate time is included in the chart, regardless of its source. In some cases, where there is no clear indication of which time is more accurate, both pieces of data are listed.


Frequently Asked Questions

I can't find the data I need.

All of the data we have is in the chart. If you are looking for an unlisted film/dev or discontinued product, please check the Unlisted Data page. If you still cannot find it then post a question to the Digitaltruth Forum.

Why is there a time listed for one film size (eg. 35mm), but not another?

Some manufacturers publish different data for different formats, others don't. User submissions are always specific to the film size, and don't usually cover all sizes. In every instance, if no time is listed for the format you are using, then use the time listed for another size as your starting point. In practice, the vast majority of film can be developed for the same time regardless of the format.

I have found the two pieces of data that conflict, which one is correct?

Where possible, all conflicting data has been removed from the chart; however, there are some circumstances where there is no way to know which piece of data is more reliable, and in those instances conflicting data may appear in the chart. If you encounter two times which are contradictory (ie. 1+9 @ 10 mins listed alongside 1+14 @ 9 mins), chances are that both of these times will work, although they will produce very different negatives. In this example, as the dilution increases from 1+9 to 1+14, you would expect the time to increase proportionally and not to decrease as shown. When in doubt, use the longest dev/time combination as your starting point. You may also want to consult the manufacturer's own data sheet to see if you can learn more.

I have a data sheet that states a different time to the one listed in the chart.

In the vast majority of cases we list the most up-to-date times from the manufacturer; however, there can be several reasons for discrepancies including:

  • Data from the manufacturer found to be incorrect by many users
    An example of this is the Kodak published time for Tri-X in HC-110 (B). Kodak's data sheet specifies 3 minutes, but so many people have found this to be short that it is widely agreed that a time of 4.5-6 minutes is more accurate.
  • Data published by manufacturer is inconsistent
    In some cases data sheets produced at different times, or in different locations show different data. In the early 1980's Agfa produced different data sheets for Rodinal in the US, Europe and Australia, sometimes showing wildly different times.
  • Contradictory data
    Film and developer manufacturers publish different times for the same products. We publish the developer manufacturer's data in these instances.

What does the term "stock" mean?

Stock solution is the working strength developer without additional dilution. For a product such as D-76 which is made from powder, you typically mix the powder into a "stock" solution, which can then be used as is, or can be diluted further (eg. 1+1). Liquid concentrate developers, such as Rodinal, are always diluted before use. These developers do not have a stock solution.

Are the times for D-76 and ID-11 the same?

These developers are almost identical. Any starting point time for one is good for the other. Ilford's published times for development of Ilford films in ID-11 have been preferred to the Ilford times for D-76, as the manufacturer's data for its own product line has undergone greater testing. Conversely, Fuji's published times for D-76 and ID-11 have been maintained as there is no way to establish which time might be more accurate.

Is the information in the Massive Dev Chart reliable?

The Massive Dev Chart is more reliable than the published data sheets released by manufacturers. Why? Because it incorporates the official information that you will find in the manufacturer's data sheets, AND it includes additional user submissions and amendments.

While some manufacturers, most notably Ilford and Fuji, provide excellent data based on their own in-house analysis, many other manufacturers are far less thorough. In fact, there are several official data sheets currently being published which include data from the Massive Dev Chart as the primary source, even though the manufacturers have never tested it themselves! If you study official data sheets you will notice that manufacturers often update the times even though no changes have been made to their products. Conversely, Kodak changed many times when they modified the film base on several products a few years back, but other published studies showed that the original times were more accurate. You can also see that, famously in the case of Agfa, they release different data in different countries. Trusting something just because it is printed by the manufacturer is does not offer any guarantee of accuracy.

The most important part of any issues regarding accuracy of development times is to understand that ALL times are starting point recommendations, regardless of the source, and it is up to the individual user to use these starting points to determine the optimum development in relation to subject contrast, print contrast and enlarging equipment.